Лев Николаевич Толстой
(09.09.1828 - 20.11.1910)
(28 (9 ..) 1828, 7 (20 .) 1910, ( ) - . .) , .

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13 , , . . . 1844 , , : . 1847, " ", ( ), " ", , , , , " ".

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1851 , , . , , , ( , ). , , "" (18521863). "" (1853), " " (1855), "-" (1896-1904, 1912). , , " , ". "" "", ( 1852 . .; "", 1852-54, "", 1855-57, ). .


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1855 (. . , . . , . . , . . .), " " (). , , , , "" (1879-82): " , ". 1856 , , , 1857 . , , , ( ""), , .


1859 , 20 , , 1860 , . , ( . . ), , , , , , . , , " " . 1862 , , 1870- . "" " ". 1862 ( ).

" " (1863-69)

1862 , . 1863 , " ". , . ( ), , , , , ( , , , ), 1865 " " " ". , , , , . , . , "" : , . " " (" , , , , ").

" " (1873-77)

1870- ., - , , , : , , , . : , , 1880- ., . . " " , ( ), , . . , " " " ". " " ( , ) , , , 1880- ., .

(1880- .)

, , , , , . " " (1884-86), " " (18871889, 1891), " " (18901898, 1912), " " (1900, , 1911), " " (1903, 1911). : , , , , , , , . "" ( 1884 , 1906 ), " " (1882), " ?" (1882-86, 1906), " " (1891, 1892, 1954), " ?" (1897-98), " " (1900, 1917), " " (1906), " " (1908). , . , - " " (18791880), " " (1880-81), " " (1884), " " (1893). . , " , , " (1887) , , "" . . . , . . , "", . . , "" " ", " , , , , ".
, . 1901 : , .

"" (1889-99)

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